Scanning differential microscopy for characterization of reflecting phase-gradient metasurfaces

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Gap-plasmon based phase-gradient metasurfaces operating in reflection are widely used for the realization of diverse flat optical components, ranging from spectropolarimeters to efficient couplers for surface waves. Successful implementation of carefully designed metasurfaces is however often hampered by technological imperfections that could be related to deviations of geometrical parameters of fabricated nanostructures from the designed ones or material properties, such as the metal and/or dielectric susceptibilities, from the handbook data. While the overall performance of fabricated components might indicate the existence of a potential problem, it is very difficult to identify its origin, which, for example, can simply be related to the deviation in only one cell of the metasurface supercell. We suggest exploiting well-developed experimental techniques of scanning differential heterodyne microscopy (SDHM) to characterize fabricated phase-gradient metasurfaces designed to operate in reflection. We further establish that, by carefully measuring the SDHM response of a gradient metasurface, one should be able of detecting small (∼5%) amplitude and phase deviations (with respect to the design values) in the optical field reflected by an individual subwavelength-sized cell of the metasurface supercell.

TidsskriftOptics Communications
Sidetal (fra-til)603-608
StatusUdgivet - 15 nov. 2018